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Guatemala, Nov 2019

Our extended Thanksgiving weekend of birding in Guatemala looked to start out in a less than optimal manner: the first big, ugly snowstorm of the year lined up perfectly with our planned flight out of Minneapolis. Happily, the airline allowed us to fly out a day early to Atlanta in order to avoid the likely delay or cancellation of the first leg. So, needing no birds in northern Georgia, we spent our extra day studying up on our Central American targets and planning where we would bird during a free afternoon in Antigua, Guatemala, that we would have when we arrived at 1:00 pm the next day.

blackheadedsaltator
Black-headed Saltator at Los Tarrales Reserve

We worked with Martsam Travel to set up our trip and guiding. Even though it was not part of the tour, they sent me an email while we were in Atlanta, offering to take us to a couple of local spots near Guatemala City and Antigua right after our arrival the next day. Everything seemed to be lining up perfectly. Too perfectly, that is….

The following day, we flew direct, Atlanta to Guatemala City … er, no we didn’t. About an hour before the anticipated landing, the pilot informed the happy passengers that we would not be going to Guatemala City, but to San Salvador instead. Why? Because there was a hole in the runway of our intended airport. No planes were departing or arriving at GUA. One imagined some massive sinkhole or bomb crater had wiped out the tarmac. Well, no…

hueco
The monstrous hole that shut down GUA for four hours

So, we landed in San Salvador, taxied to a holding position beyond the airport, and were told to shut the windows to avoid the mid-day sun from making the plane too miserable, and to wait for news. We sat there for over two and half hours. Here is the lovely view that was presented when one dared to slide the window-shade up:

elsalvador
Where not to go birding in El Salvador

Once we finally learned that the hole had been filled, the plane headed back out, and we tried to see something, anything, in the dry grassy areas around the tarmac or on the buildings, but saw only unidentifiable swallows and other various passerines. Not even one Rock Pigeon. But I submitted our findings to eBird anyway – it has to be the most pathetic eBird list imaginable, and I think, the first ever, for the San Salvadore airport – X swallow sp., X passerine sp.

A hotspot, it is not.

Needless to say, that first afternoon of birding around Antigua didn’t happen at all. By the time we landed, it was already sunset.

Once we finally got to bird, we picked up a few nice specialties,  such as Pink-headed Warbler and the absolutely tiny Wine-throated Hummingbird:

winethroatedhumm
Wine-throated Hummingbird

We dipped on our two Motmot targets (Blue-throated and Tody), but saw plenty of Lesson’s:

lessonsmotmot
Lesson’s Motmot

A long-time nemesis-bird, the Tropical Pewee, finally gave itself up. We’d never seen this species even though we’ve had at least half a dozen trips in its range.

troppewee
Tropical Pewee

Similar to the Evening Grosbeak, the lovely Hooded Grosbeak was challenging to find, but our guides eventually put us right on one:

hoodedgrosbeak
Immature Hooded Grosbeak

We also got two of our three tanager targets, including Yellow-winged Tanager:

yellowwingedtanager
Yellow-winged Tanager

… and another long-time nemesis-bird, the White-winged Tanager, which we had dipped on at least four times:

whitewingedtanager
White-winged Tanager

Our last day involved a climb up the San Pedro volcano near Lake Atitlan – probably the most grueling, ankle-twisting hike we have ever done on any birding trip – all for a chance at Horned Guans. But they didn’t get the memo that they were supposed show up, though it would have required considerably less effort on their part. However, we lucked out by getting a view of four Singing Quail, as well as a Chestnut-sided Shrike-Vireo and the stunning Garnet-throated Hummingbird:

garnethroatedhumm
Garnet-throated Hummingbird

So, a mixed bag of a trip, to be sure, given the short length. Overall, the location I’d like to visit again the most would have to be Los Tarrales Natural Reserve. We didn’t have nearly enough time to explore it. The guides, drivers, and support from Martsam were all good, and they worked very hard for us.

Mato Grosso, Brazil, October 2019

Just returned from eight days of birding (and mammaling?) in the Pantanal and Chapada regions of Mato Grosso, both adjacent to the city of Cuiabá. This is very close to the geometric center of the South American continent. Apparently there are some markers or monuments that capture this fact, but, as is often the case, we don’t bother seeking out such sites, because birds.

bch
Black-collared Hawk, seen everywhere

It was a bit involved getting there: Minneapolis to Dallas, then overnight (10 hours) Dallas to Sao Paulo, then a long (full day) wait in the airport, and then backtracking two hours to Cuiabá, which we flew over on the flight from Dallas. While we were at the Saó Paulo airport we wandered around outside for a bit, pushing our luggage on a cart, staring up into the scarce trees at Saffron Finches and House Wrens, of all things, while the locals looked at us as if we were from Mars.

caiman
Also seen everywhere are these small Caimans

Our guide Johnny picked us up Saturday morning and we then drove south to the Pantanal. Our first destination was the Aymara Lodge. This friendly and comfy hotel lies just inside the northern boundary of the Pantanal wetland and was good for various woodcreepers, among other birds.

btwc
Buff-throated Woodcreeper

I was also happy to see my first wild Coati there. My maternal grandfather actually had one of these as a pet in the late 4o’s (and she was named Suzy). Seems like a terrible idea.

coati
Poor nighttime photo of one of Suzy’s relatives

October in the Pantanal is hot; we experienced upwards of 40 C / 100 F. Unsurprisingly, not much wildlife is to be seen during midday, but at daybreak a host of otherwise invisible birds suddenly appear, such as this currasow:

bfcurf
Female Bare-faced Currasow

Rainy season still being a few weeks away, the little bit of water that remains was very popular with birds and mammals alike. No surprise why this is the busy season, as the wildlife is fairly concentrated and easy to find.

mdeer
Marsh Deer at Aymara

No shortage of Greater Rheas here. We were treated to several, including a huge male tending his brood.

grhea
Male Greater Rhea taking care of a few chicks – the little grey blobs in front of him.

After two nights in the northern Pantanal, we went south to Porto Jofre, where the road ends at at the Cuiabá River. Only about 120 km, but it was a good four hours of dirt road and sketchy bridges.  We stayed at the Hotel Pantanal Norte.

river
On the Cuiabá River

Dozens of boats cruise this stretch of river, principally looking for big cats, but there is plenty of bird-life also.

cappedheron
Capped Heron

But even a couple of hardcore birders like us had to be awed by the felines patrolling the river.

jag1
One of six different Jaguars we saw over two days on the river

Also being cat-owners, we are quite familiar with facial expressions like this one:

jag3
When our cats get this look, it means: ‘Where is my food, human?”

Here is a nice prospective dinner for a hungry jaguar:

capy
Capybara and Wattled Jacanas – immature and adult
Another easy find in the Pantanal are the largest of the Macaws, the Hyacinth:

 

hymac
Hyacinth Macaws getting their Daily Allowance of minerals

Other denizens of the river include plenty of the bizarre Sunbitterns:

sunb
Sunbittern

… and the even stranger Great Potoo:

gpotoo
Great Potoo

Because of the extreme heat, the schedules here start nice and early, with breakfast at 5AM. I love hotels that keep birder’s hours.

tt
Toco Toucan
jnest
Jabiru nest
ff
Fuscous Flycatcher
bni
Buff-necked Ibis

After two full days on the river, we headed back north to the edge of the Pantanal, for a day at Pousada Piuval. Looking at the eBird lists while here I noticed that we just missed, by one day, a guide that I had hired for half a day many years ago in Miami. Odd.

bymac
Blue-and-yellow Macaw
capy2
Capybara with Giant Cowbird
ammot
Amazonian Motmot
ftfcs
Tree full of Fork-tailed Flycatchers

Finally we spent our last two nightsat Pousada do Parque in the Chapada dos Guimaraes, a national park north of Cuiabá which sits on the plateaus.

la
Lettered Aracari
gbe
Glittering-bellied Emerald
sbt
Small-billed Tinamou

Shortly before we headed back to Cuiabá for our final night in Mato Grosso, I got an unexpected email from Mark Smiles, our guide from the UAE. In another strange coincidence, he was just leaving Cuiabá on his way up to the national park that we were just departing. We probably passed each other on the freeway. How strange is that?

jag2
Time For Go To Bed!

Bird Names, Part 3

Good bird names are descriptive. Yellow-bellied Flycatcher is a wonderful name; it describes a feature and a behavior. It includes a color, and that is even better; an image comes to mind, it seems, much more readily when one can picture the coloration. A very rough estimate suggests that at least 3,000 or so birds have some kind of color included in their common name (I’m working on an exact count). This can show up in many ways, such as with a general, overall descriptor (“Indigo Bunting”), or as a part of a full name (“Yellowthroat”), or as part of a more specific, descriptive feature (“Red-headed Woodpecker”), or as one of several colors (“Black-and-white Warbler”), or my favorite, one that includes a useless hyphen (such as “Little Green-Pigeon”, an example which seems particularly silly given that there was also a “Spotted Green Pigeon” which was green with yellow spots… so why is hyphen use not consistent?!)

So with all that, here are a few trivia questions related to bird names that include specific colors.

Question # 1:

Which color most commonly shows up in bird names?

(The featured image for this page gives a very sneaky, devious hint. That really wasn’t very nice, but I didn’t want to give the answer away too easily.)


Question # 2:

About how many species include this most common color?

(a) 153

(b) 211

(c) 346

(d) 508

(e) 698


At the other extreme, there are colors which only rarely make it into bird names. The question below features a few examples.

Question #3:

Each of the these colors appear in at least one bird name. But which one occurs just once?

(a) Cerulean

(b) Vermilion

(c) Salmon

(d) Viridian


Question #4:

Consider the birds which include the color black in their name. Which of the choices below is the most common?

(a) Black-throated

(b) Black-headed

(c) Black-bellied

(d) Black-vented

(e) Black-winged


Question #5:

Consider the birds which include the color white in their name. Which of the choices below is the most common?

(a) White-throated

(b) White-headed

(c) White-bellied

(d) White-eye(d)

(e) White-tailed


Question #6:

Consider the birds which include the color blue in their name. Which of the choices below is the most common?

(a) Blue-throated

(b) Blue-tailed

(c) Blue-headed

(d) Blue-breasted

(e) Blue-winged


More colors coming soon….

treeswallows
Tree Swallows

Answers:

1: The most common color in a bird name is…. white.

2: (e) 698. If you include all names with “White” or “white” you will find 706, but we need to remove the following eight because they are not describing a color, but either a call (“Bobwhite”) or the proper name of the person for which they are named:

Northern Bobwhite, Black-throated Bobwhite, Crested Bobwhite, Whitehead’s Swiftlet, Whitehead’s Trogon, Whitehead’s Broadbill (shown in the featured image for this post), Whitehead’s Spiderhunter, White’s Thrush

Interestingly, of the 698 birds with white in their name, only thirteen are “pure” white, that is, of the form “White X”:

White Eared-Pheasant, White Tern, White Stork, American White Pelican, Great White Pelican, White Ibis, White Hawk, White Woodpecker, White Cockatoo, White Bellbird, White Monjita, White Helmetshrike, White Wagtail

For all of the 685 others, the term “white” describes some feature, such as “white-browed” or “white-throated,” etc.

3: (c) Salmon occurs just once, with the Salmon-crested Cockatoo. There are four cerulean birds, three vermilions, and two viridians.

4: (b) Black-headed, of which there are 45.

5: (d) White-eye(d), and it isn’t even close! There are 120 such birds.

6: (e) Blue-winged, of which there are 13.

Bird Names, Part 2

We continue looking at the 10,721 species names from the updated Clements taxonomy. Well, not all of them at once, but various interesting subsets. Previously we looked at the number of words in bird names, comparing their structure with human names and “surnames.”

A natural step from here is to look at an even more direct intersection: species named after people.

This is a terrible way to name a bird, I think. Honoring the individual that first described a bird is all well and good, and can be done in the latin name, as is often the case. But the common names that birders must commit to memory should be descriptive, and I submit that there is simply nothing descriptive in the name “Ludlow’s Fulvetta,” for example.

Here are some trivia questions to get us thinking about these matters:

Question #1:

Of the 10,721 species, how many are named after people?

(a) 498

(b) 828

(c) 1,333

(d) 203


Question #2:

How many different individuals have birds named after them (with a name of the form “Ludlow’s Fulvetta”)?

(a) 92

(3) 221

(c) 506

(d) 788


Question #3:

Which one individual has the most species named after them?


Question  #4:

Following up to the above question, how many species were named after this person?


When naming a bird after a person, the name is almost always of the form “Wilson’s Warbler”; it uses a possessive adjective. There are, however, 21 species that are named after specific people, but that do not use this form.

Question #5:

Can you give an example of a species named in honor of a specific person, but which does not use an apostrophe in the spelling?


Bonus Question #6:

Provide a species name which references a human name, although the bird is not named specifically for them.


EdwardBlyth
The answer to Question #3 is pictured here. Sadly, he did not work on neotropical birds, and so did not get to have a Tuftedcheek named after him.

Answers

1: Of the 10,721 species, how many are named after people?

(b) 828, by my accounting. There are 806 birds in Clements that have an apostrophe, not including the Chuck-will’s-widow, which is not named after someone called Chuck-will. See the answer to number 5 below for the other birds.

2: How many different individuals have birds named after them?

(c) 506 that use the possessive form, see the answer to number 5 for the others.

3: Which one individual has the most species named after them?

The individual with the most species named after him is Edward Blyth (1810-1873)

4: Following up to the above question, how many species were named after this person?

Mr. Blyth has 12 species, per the Clements taxonomy:

Blyth’s Tragopan
Blyth’s Frogmouth
Blyth’s Swift
Blyth’s Hawk-Eagle
Blyth’s Hornbill
Blyth’s Kingfisher
Blyth’s Shrike-Babbler
Blyth’s Paradise-Flycatcher
Blyth’s Reed Warbler
Blyth’s Leaf Warbler
Blyth’s Pipit
Blyth’s Rosefinch

By the way, the Top Ten, and the number of species they each have, are:

Blyth 12
Cassin 9
Pallas 8
Hume 8
Finsch 8
Jerdon 8
Salvadori 8
Shelley 8
Rüppell 8
Temminck 7

5: Can you give an example of a species named in honor of a specific person, but which does not use an apostrophe in the spelling?

I have found 22 species instances where a species is named in honor of a specific person, but the name is not of the form “Johnson’s Wren.” There are fourteen people involved:

  • Victoria Crowned-Pigeon (for Queen Victoria, who else? She also has the Victoria‘s Riflebird)
  • Gouldian Finch (for ornithologist John Gould’s wife)
  • Blackburnian Warbler (for the botanist Anna Blackburne)
  • Alexandrine Parakeet (for Alexander the Great)
  • Derbyan Parakeet (for Edward Stanley, 13th Earl of Derby)
  • There are seven “Magellanic” birds: Penguin, Plover, Oystercatcher, Diving-Petrel, Cormorant, Woodpecker, and Tapaculo (for Ferdinand Magellan)
  • Goliath Coucal and Goliath Heron (for the noted gargantuan Philistine and sling-victim)
  • Mikado Pheasant (for the Emperor of Japan)
  • Montezuma Quail and Oropendola (for the Aztec Emperor)
  • Narcissus Flycatcher (for the mythological narcissist)
  • Narina Trogon (name of Francois Levaillant’s mistress)
  • Princess Parrot (for Princess Alexandra of Denmark)
  • Raggiana Bird-of-Paradise (for the Marquis Francis Raggi of Genoa)
  • Zenaida Dove (for Zénaïde Laetitia Julie Bonaparte, wife of the French ornithologist Charles Lucien Bonaparte and niece of Napoleon Bonaparte)

6: Provide a species name which references a human name, although the bird is not named specifically for them.

This happens when the bird name references a place that was named after a person. There are over 48 names in this category:

Baltimore Oriole, Hudsonian Godwit, Colombian Grebe, Bolivian Spinetail, Juan Fernandez Tit-Tyrant, Lord Howe Swamphen (extinct), Santa Marta Warbler, San Andres Vireo, Virginia Rail, St. Lucia Black Finch, Henderson Island Reed Warbler, Bismarck Black Myzomela, Nashville Warbler, Atherton Scrubfowl, Chatham Albatross, Crozet Shag, Geelvink Pygmy-Parrot, Gough Island Finch, Gough Moorhen, Gunnison Sage-Grouse, Heard Island Shag, Humboldt Penguin, Isabela Oriole, Isabelline* Shrike, Kimberley Honeyeater, King-of-Saxony Bird-of-Paradise, Macquarie Shag, Magdalena Antbird, Mascarene Coot, Mauritius Blue-Pigeon, Nariño Tapaculo, Nightingale Island Finch, Norfolk Ground Dove, Noronha Elaenia, Pitt Island Shag, Rennell Fantail, Rodrigues Fody, Rondonia Bushbird, Rote Leaf Warbler, Solomons Boobook, St. Helena Crake, St. Lucia Oriole, St. Vincent Parrot, Stephens Island Wren, Stewart Island Shag, Sucre Antpitta, Torresian Crow, Wake Island Rail, Wallacean Drongo, Wonga Pigeon, and Zapata Rail. Two species are named after Esmereldas, the northernmost province of Ecuador:  a Woodstar and an Antbird. This refers to “emeralds” and not the  name of anyone.

*The origin of the color isabelline is not clear. There is a disputed story that it refers to the color of the undergarments of either Isabella I of Castille or Isabella Clara Eugena of Spain. The hue became distinctive because it resulted from the discolored underclothes never being removed from the royal person for months or years due to an ongoing siege.

Bird Names, Part 1

We form most bird names in the same way we name people. A first name, a last name. Something specific, to differentiate from the more general. Burrowing Owl. Yellow Warbler. Mountain Chickadee. It’s always appreciated when the name tells you something about the bird, be it behavior, appearance, or habitat. Sometimes you get multiple clues: for example, Malaysian Pied-Fantail tells you a lot.

If only all birds were named so well. Sharpe’s Akalat just does not describe much, does it?

The Clements taxonomy was recently updated for 2019, and it now includes 10,721 species. It seemed like a good time to go through them all and to revel in the nomenclature, classification, and general nerdiness that lies at the intersection of birding and logophilia. So I have been writing up some Python scripts to parse the latest downloadable spreadsheets from eBird and look at the results. I find this sort of thing so much fun that I figure everyone else must as well. Perhaps that is too optimistic. In any case, I’m making this post, and several that will follow, into a quiz. Answers are at the bottom.

Getting back to bird and people names, we’ll start with the mononyms, those odd cases where an individual has just a single name. With humans, these are generally entertainers and such, so I tend not to know much about them: Sting, Pele, Shakira, Ichiro, etc.

With birds, having a mononym is equally rare. If we include bird names with a hyphen, such as Jacky-winter or Chuck-will’s-widow, there are 166 to consider. This is about 1.5% of all species. The number of mononyms that have no hyphens is 146.

Question #1:

Of these 146 pure mononymic names, how many have just one syllable?

Question #2:

How many monosyllabic species can you name? (Remember, an answer such as “Gull” does not count, as there is no such specific bird.)

So how many birds go with two-word names, such as “Northern Cardinal”? The overwhelming majority: 9821, or just under 92%.

And then there are names with even more parts, but as is becoming clear, there cannot be very many along the lines of Great Blue Heron; after all, we’ve already accounted for 166+9,821=9,987 having names comprised of just one or two words.

Question #3:

The longest bird name(s) consist of how many words? Three? Four? Five? More?

Just as with human names, we expect that certain avian “surnames” will be more common: the Johnsons and Smiths, for example.

So if we consider all bird names beyond the odd monosyllabic ones, we get to our first multiple choice entry:

Question #4:

Which is the most common “surname” for a bird? (This is not the same as asking which family is the largest, because many families have members with different “last names.” For example, both Tufted Duck and Lesser Scaup are in the duck family, but only one goes by Mr. or Mrs. or Ms. Duck at the office.)

(a) Warbler

(b) Flycatcher

(c) Bunting

(d) Tanager

(e) Woodpecker

(f) Sparrow


As stated above, the assumption here was that words could include a hyphen. I don’t like hyphens; they muck things up. They are not applied consistently. For example, there are White-eyes, and then there is the Silvereye. Thick-Knees and Broadbills. Bee-eaters and Flycatchers. Cuckoo-Doves and Cuckooshrikes. Ant-Tanagers and Antwrens. That last one is particularly egregious. I don’t get it. Can someone explain this to me?

So what happens if we were to say that Catherine Zeta-Jones fully belongs to the Jones clan? That Mr. Sage-Grouse should go by the name of Mr. Grouse?

Question #5:

Repeat of #4, but after making hyphens into whitespace (or is it white-space?)

(a) Warbler

(b) Flycatcher

(c) Bunting

(d) Tanager

(e) Woodpecker

(f) Sparrow


That’s all for now. I’ve got some doozies planned for upcoming posts.
Easternspotbilledduck2
Eastern Spot-billed Duck, Tokyo

Answers:

#1: Fully six birds have monosyllabic names….

#2: And they are: Brant, Smew, Ruff, Mao, Rook, Twite

#3: No species has a name consisting of more than FOUR parts. And there are not very many of them. Here they are:

Rio de Janeiro Antbird
Rio de Janeiro Antwren
Gran Canaria Blue Chaffinch
Santa Cruz Ground Dove
Caroline Islands Ground Dove
St. Lucia Black Finch
Von der Decken’s Hornbill
Sri Lanka Gray Hornbill
North Island Brown Kiwi
Large St. Helena Petrel
Small St. Helena Petrel
New Guinea Flightless Rail
New Zealand King Shag
Abd al Kuri Sparrow
Serra do Mar Tyrannulet
Serra do Mar Tyrant-Manakin
Cape Verde Swamp Warbler
Southern Marquesan Reed Warbler
Henderson Island Reed Warbler
Cook Islands Reed Warbler
Society Islands Reed Warbler
Northern Marquesan Reed Warbler
Dja River Swamp Warbler
West Himalayan Bush Warbler
Sri Lanka Bush Warbler

So the breakout for three- and four-word names is:

709 three-word names (about 0.6%)
25 four-word names (well under 0.1%)

#4: The correct answer is (a) Warbler. Thanks to the Old and New World versions, there are 292. Here are the top 10 most common bird “surnames”:

Warbler 292

Flycatcher 232

Woodpecker 175

Tanager 143

Sunbird 129

Thrush 116

Parrot 110

White-eye 108

Honeyeater 98

Sparrow 94

#5: The correct answer is still (a) Warbler. Bracken-warblers, Rush-warblers, Grasshopper-warblers, Brush-warblers, and many others… all Warblers except for that damn hyphen!

Here are the top 10:

Warbler 332

Flycatcher 300

Owl 191

Dove 184

Woodpecker 177

Tanager 169

Babbler 161

Thrush 158

Pigeon 152

Parrot 145

Finally, a list of the 146 pure mononyms of the bird world. Hyphens not welcome here!

Emu
Brant
Garganey
Gadwall,
Mallard
Canvasback
Redhead
Hardhead
Bufflehead
Smew
Malleefowl
Maleo
Chukar
Dodo
Oilbird
Snowcap
Streamertail
Hoatzin
Weka
Sora
Watercock
Sungrebe
Limpkin
Brolga
Ibisbill
Killdeer
Wrybill
Whimbrel
Surfbird
Ruff
Sanderling
Dunlin
Willet
Dovekie
Razorbill
Kagu
Sunbittern
Jabiru
Anhinga
Shoebill
Hamerkop
Secretarybird
Osprey
Bateleur
Shikra
Besra
Morepork
Dollarbird
Merlin
Gyrfalcon
Kea
Kakapo
Galah
Cockatiel
Guaiabero
Budgerigar
Rifleman
Sapayoa
Capuchinbird
Sharpbill
Tui
Mao
Goldenface
Pilotbird
Rockwarbler
Fernwren
Scrubtit
Redthroat
Weebill
Chowchilla
Whitehead
Yellowhead
Pipipi
Morningbird
Brubru
Bokmakierie
Balicassiao
Apostlebird
Piapiac
Rook
Huia
Stitchbird
Tomtit
Verdin
Rockrunner
Millerbird
Spinifexbird
Malia
Thamnornis
Odedi
Bushtit
Wrentit
Silvereye
Goldcrest
Flamecrest
Wallcreeper
Coleto
Grandala
Kamao
Amaui
Olomao
Omao
Puaiohi
Geomalia
Veery
Redwing
Fieldfare
Silverbird
Bluethroat
Firethroat
Blackthroat
Whinchat
Blackstart
Kioea
Phainopepla
Palmchat
Hylocitrea
Hypocolius
Mistletoebird
Quailfinch
Locustfinch
Dunnock
Madanga
Brambling
Hawfinch
Akikiki
Kakawahie
Palila
Akohekohe
Apapane
Iiwi
Ou
Akiapolaau
Anianiau
Akekee
Twite
Yellowhammer
Wrenthrush
Bobolink
Ovenbird
Pyrrhuloxia
Dickcissel
Pardusco
Plushcap
Bananaquit
Orangequit

Unreported Species in eBird

The Clements taxonomy, after the latest August 2019 update, includes 10,721 species.

As of September 2019, 10,507 of these have at least one eBird record.

So there are 214 species which have no records in eBird. What are they?

(It should be noted that while there are currently 140 “sensitive” species which do not have any information regarding when they were last seen, they obviously have been seen recently, so they do not count against the difference of 214.)

Of the 214 missing species, 139 are listed as extinct. So there are 75 species waiting to get their first eBird record. I find this amazing. Here are the elusive 75:

Abd al Kuri Sparrow Passer hemileucus
Alagoas Curassow Mitu mitu
Aldabra Brush-Warbler Nesillas aldabrana
Ash’s Lark Mirafra ashi
Bare-legged Swiftlet Aerodramus nuditarsus
Bates’s Weaver Ploceus batesi
Bismarck Thicketbird Cincloramphus grosvenori
Black-lored Waxbill Estrilda nigriloris
Blue-wattled Bulbul Pycnonotus nieuwenhuisii
Bougainville Thrush Zoothera atrigena
Cayenne Nightjar Setopagis maculosa
Chapin’s Mountain-Babbler Turdoides chapini
Chestnut-shouldered Goshawk Erythrotriorchis buergersi
Coastal Boubou Laniarius nigerrimus
Congo Bay-Owl Phodilus prigoginei
Coppery Thorntail Discosura letitiae
Cryptic Treehunter Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti
Duida Grass-Finch Emberizoides duidae
Dulit Partridge Rhizothera dulitensis
Glaucous Macaw Anodorhynchus glaucus
Golden-fronted Bowerbird Amblyornis flavifrons
Gorgeted Puffleg Eriocnemis isabellae
Itombwe Nightjar Caprimulgus prigoginei
Javan Lapwing Vanellus macropterus
Kabobo Apalis Apalis kaboboensis
Kauai Nukupuu Hemignathus hanapepe
Kinglet Calyptura Calyptura cristata
Kordofan Lark Mirafra cordofanica
Lake Lufira Masked-Weaver Ploceus ruweti
Louisiade Flowerpecker Dicaeum nitidum
Louisiade Pitta Erythropitta meeki
Luzon Buttonquail Turnix worcesteri
Makira Moorhen Gallinula silvestris
Manus Masked-Owl Tyto manusi
Maui Nukupuu Hemignathus affinis
Mayr’s Rail Rallina mayri
Moorea Reed Warbler Acrocephalus longirostris
Mountain Starling Aplonis santovestris
Namuli Apalis Apalis lynesi
Naung Mung Scimitar-Babbler Napothera naungmungensis
Nechisar Nightjar Caprimulgus solala
Negros Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus arcanus
New Caledonian Nightjar Eurostopodus exul
New Caledonian Owlet-nightjar Aegotheles savesi
New Caledonian Rail Gallirallus lafresnayanus
New Hanover Munia Lonchura nigerrima
Niam-Niam Parrot Poicephalus crassus
Oahu Alauahio Paroreomyza maculata
Pernambuco Pygmy-Owl Glaucidium mooreorum
Pohnpei Starling Aplonis pelzelni
Prigogine’s Sunbird Cinnyris prigoginei
Red Sea Swallow Petrochelidon perdita
Rio de Janeiro Antwren Myrmotherula fluminensis
Rotuma Myzomela Myzomela chermesina
Rück’s Blue Flycatcher Cyornis ruckii
Rusty Lark Mirafra rufa
Saffron-breasted Redstart Myioborus cardonai
Sangihe White-eye Zosterops nehrkorni
Sassi’s Greenbul Phyllastrephus lorenzi
Schouteden’s Swift Schoutedenapus schoutedeni
Shelley’s Crimsonwing Cryptospiza shelleyi
Siau Scops-Owl Otus siaoensis
Slender-tailed Cisticola Cisticola melanurus
Society Islands Reed Warbler Acrocephalus musae
Somali Pigeon Columba oliviae
Sulu Bleeding-heart Gallicolumba menagei
Tachira Antpitta Grallaria chthonia
Tagula White-eye Zosterops meeki
Three-toed Swiftlet Aerodramus papuensis
Turquoise-throated Puffleg Eriocnemis godini
Vilcabamba Brushfinch Atlapetes terborghi
White-chested White-eye Zosterops albogularis
White-eyed River Martin Pseudochelidon sirintarae
White-faced Redstart Myioborus albifacies
Yellow-legged Weaver Ploceus flavipes

Another way to look at this is that Clements has 10,561 total species that it does not consider extinct.

That means that to see at least half the world’s species, with a 1% margin for error, one will need 5,333 birds.

Cumulative eBird Species Over Time

eBird

If you look at the bottom of the main eBird page, you’ll see that the total number of species reported world-wide, for all time, is 10,420. If you click on that number, you’ll get a list, just as you would if you were looking at the list of recently seen birds in your county or favorite hot-spot. The results are listed from most recently seen in reverse-chronological order.

I’ve been looking at that list for the past week or so, putting it into a spreadsheet and playing with the numbers. Specifically, I pulled the data on April 29th and on May 6, both Mondays. With the latter date coming after the “Big Day” weekend, it was expected that the rate at which species are picked up would be different. The plot is below:

csp
Cumulative number of species versus time; going left to right is going back in time. The leftmost point on the blue curve is for May 5, while for the orange it is April 28. Each point is one day. The Big Day Bump is evident.

I plotted the cumulative number of species recorded on eBird as a function of time (going backwards) in the above figure. Starting with the orange curve, which is for data pulled on April 29th, one can see that on April 28 (corresponding to the leftmost point), just under 1,000 species were reported. During the previous three days, the total was about 4,600. For the blue curve, where Big Day (and spring migration and improving weather, of course) played a role, we can see that about 6,800 species were recorded over three days.

Beyond that, the lines merge, as they must, and by the time we go back to 0.1 years, or just over five weeks, there is no significant difference.

Note that none of the “sensitive” species on eBird enter into this, since they not only have information about locations redacted, but also about the dates of the most recent sightings. There are 133 of these species; just under 1.3%, so the impact on the chart would be difficult to perceive.

The next interesting bit is that about 9,900 species have been recorded in the last 365 days. To get to an even 10,000, you need to go back 568 days, about a year and a half.  Go back five years to get to 10,164 species. Ten years and get to 10,204. But to get to 10,287, which is the total number of species in eBird excluding the sensitive species? You’ll need to go back to the earliest records they keep – 169 years old – for a Cuban Macaw from 1850.

The Cuban Macaw is long extinct, as are many other birds that make up the eBird 10,420 value. How many? I count at least 30 species, the most recent being Atitlan Grebe Podilymbus gigas, last reported in 1986. Sadly there are likely more. Assuming the 133 sensitive species are still doable (doubtful, with the Spix’s Macaw, for example, recently declared extinct), that leaves 10,390 as a more accurate estimate of bird species recognized by the eBird/Clements taxonomy that one could in principle, find.

Getting to half of the total species possible means 5,195… my goal is to get to this value, plus 1% more, just as a buffer – a 1% error rate in ID seems reasonable. That gets one to 5,247. Rounding up, this makes 5,250, my life list goal.